Education pathways from basic edcuation to doctorate

Sam
29 Nov 2022
757
0 minutes

Education pathways from basic edcuation to doctorate

If you are choosing to further your study, you are most likely a motivated person and will do well in your career regardless. You could be finishing secondary schooling and looking for the first logical step in your career journey. Or maybe you did not even manage to complete your secondary education but are interested in pursuing a career. There are many possible opportunities out there for you to pursue.

Certificates, diplomas, and degrees are all higher education achievements that you can earn in readiness for a career of your choice. They have different entry requirements, learning objectives, and job prospects, making it important to consider which one is right for your career. There is an opportunity for students with low scores to find a path to excel in their careers by starting at a lower level and progressing to higher levels. Each level of study has its own advantages and imparts different skills to the students, the lower-level certifications are more hand skills oriented whereas the higher-level programs are more theoretical and hence more holistic in nature.

The Kenyan government set up the Kenya National Qualifications Authority (KNQA) to help in coordinating and harmonizing education, training, assessment, and quality assurance of all qualifications awarded in the country; with the view to improving quality and international comparability. The Kenya National Qualification Framework (KNQF) which the authority has developed and is now implementing is part of Kenya’s international commitments to develop an accurate, reliable, and robust database of all qualifications in the country that will allow for comparability and information sharing in the education sector globally.

The KNQF is a learning outcome-based qualifications framework, comprising all educational and training sectors and all forms of learning; formal, non-formal, and informal learning.  The KNQF comprises levels, each being identified by a unique set of Level Descriptors.  In order to place a qualification on any KNQF level, the learning outcomes (L.O) of each unit comprising a qualification and the overall qualification learning outcomes are mapped against these Level Descriptors.  At each level, the Level Descriptors are classified into three separate strands (categories) covering Knowledge, Skills, and Competencies.

The KNQF comprises ten (10) distinct levels, starting from the lowest (Basic Education) level 1evel to the highest level attainable (Doctorate Degree) level 10.

KNQF LEVEL 1: Primary Certificate)/Basic Skills/Skills for life

Purpose: The level qualifies a graduate to have basic functional knowledge and skills to undertake work, further learning and community involvement.

Knowledge: A graduate at this level should have basic fundamental knowledge and understanding in a narrow area of work and learning.

Skills: A graduate at this level should have — 

  • basic skills to participate in everyday life and further learning;
  • cognitive and communication skills to receive, pass on and recall information in a narrow range of areas; and
  • technical skills involving the use of tools appropriate to the activity and use of basic communication technologies.

Competence: A graduate at this level should demonstrate the application of knowledge and skills — for some autonomy in defined contexts and within established parameters; and communication in contexts that may include preparation for further learning, life activities or a variety of initial routine and predictable work-related activities including participation in a team or work group.

Minimum Admission Requirements: Birth certificate

Minimum Volume of learning: The minimum volume of learning is a duration of 6 Years


KNQF LEVEL 2: Secondary Certificate/ National Skills Certificate III (NSC-III)/Government Trade Test III (GTT-III)/National Vocational Certificate I (NVC-I)/Pre-Vocational

Purpose: The level qualifies a graduate to undertake mainly routine work and as a pathway

Knowledge: A graduate at this level should have basic factual, technical and procedural knowledge in a defined area of work and learning.

Skills: A graduate at this level should have —

  • cognitive skills to access, record and act on a defined range of information from a range of sources;
  • cognitive and communication skills to apply and communicate known solutions to a limited range of predictable problems; and
  • technical skills to use a limited range of equipment to complete tasks involving known routines and procedures with a limited range of options.

Competence: A graduate at this level should demonstrate the application of knowledge and skills —

  • for some accountability for the quality of own outcomes and some responsibility for own outputs in work and learning;
  • for limited autonomy and judgment in the completion of own defined and routine tasks in known and stable contexts; and
  • for limited autonomy and judgment to complete routine but variable tasks in collaboration with others in a team environment.

Minimum Admission Requirements: Primary certificate (KNQF level 1)  or 6 years of primary Education

Minimum Volume of learning: The minimum volume of learning is a duration of 4 years. 


KNQF LEVEL 3: National Skills Certificate II (NSC-II)/Government Trade Test II (GTT- II)/National Vocational Certificate II (NVC- II)

Purpose: The level qualifies a graduate to apply a broad range of knowledge and skills in varied contexts to undertake skilled work and as a pathway for further learning

Knowledge: A graduate at this level should have factual, technical, procedural, and theoretical knowledge in an area of work and learning.

Skills: A graduate at this level should have; 

  • cognitive, technical, and communication skills to interpret and act on available information;
  • cognitive and communication skills to apply and communicate known solutions to a variety of predictable problems and to deal with unforeseen contingencies using known solutions;
  • technical and communication skills to provide technical information to a variety of specialist and non-specialist audiences; and
  • technical skills to undertake routine and some non-routine tasks in a range of skilled operations.

Competence: A graduate at this level should demonstrate the application of knowledge and skills:

  • for discretion and judgment in the selection of equipment, services or contingency measures;
  • to adapt and transfer skills and knowledge within known routines, methods, procedures and time constraints; and
  • in contexts that include taking responsibility for own outputs in work and learning including participation in teams and taking limited responsibility for the output of others within established parameters.

Minimum Admission Requirements: KCPE Certificate, KCSE certificate E, KNQA level 1 or 2

Minimum Volume of learning: The minimum volume of learning is 300 Hours or 30 Credits or a minimum of 3 Months after level 2


KNQF LEVEL 4: Artisan Certificate/National Vocational Certificate III (NVC-II)/National Skills Certificate I (NSC-I)/Government Trade Test I (GTT-I)

Purpose: The level qualifies a graduate to apply a broad range of specialized knowledge and skills in varied contexts to undertake skilled work and as a pathway for further learning.

Knowledge: A graduate at this level should have broad factual, technical and theoretical knowledge in a specialized field of work and learning.

Skills: A graduate at this level should have:

  • cognitive skills to identify, analyze, compare and act on information from a range of sources;
  • cognitive, technical and communication skills to apply and communicate technical;
  • solutions of a non-routine or contingency nature to a defined range of predictable and unpredictable problems;
  • specialist technical skills to complete routine and non-routine tasks and functions; and
  • communication skills to guide activities and provide technical advice in work and learning.

Competence: A graduate at this level should demonstrate the application of knowledge and skills:

  • to specialized tasks or functions in known or changing contexts;
  • for responsibility for own functions and outputs, and may have limited responsibility for organization of others; and
  • for limited responsibility for the quantity and quality of the output of others in a team within limited parameters

Minimum Admission Requirements: KCSE E, KCE Div. IV, or Certificate of Experiential Learning or completion of KNQA level 2 or 3

Minimum Volume of learning: The minimum volume of learning is: 600 Hours or 60 Credits or a minimum of 6 Months after level 2 OR 30 credits after level 3


KNQF LEVEL 5: National Craft certificate /National Vocational Certificate IV (NVTC IV)/Master Craft Person III

Purpose: The level qualifies a graduate to apply integrated technical and theoretical concepts in a broad range of contexts to undertake advanced skilled or paraprofessional work and as a pathway for further learning.

Knowledge: A graduate at this level should have technical and theoretical knowledge and concepts, with depth in some areas within a field of work and learning.

Skills: A graduate at this level should have:

  • cognitive and communication skills to identify, analyze, synthesize and act on information from a range of sources;
  • cognitive, technical and communication skills to analyst, plan, design and evaluate approaches to unpredictable problems and/or management requirements;
  • specialist technical and creative skills to express ideas and perspectives; and
  • communication skills to transfer knowledge and specialized skills to others and demonstrate understanding of knowledge.

Competence: A graduate at this level should demonstrate the application of knowledge and skills:

  • to transfer and apply theoretical concepts, technical or creative skills in a range of situations;
  • for personal responsibility and autonomy in performing complex technical operations with responsibility for own outputs in relation to broad parameters for quantity and quality; and
  • for initiative and judgment to organize the work of self and others and plan, coordinate and evaluate the work of teams within broad but generally well-defined parameter

Minimum Admission Requirements: KCSE D (plain), KCE Div. III or equivalent qualifications or Certificate of Experiential Learning or completion of KNQF level 4

Minimum Volume of learning: The minimum volume of learning is 1200 Hours or 120 Credits or a minimum of 1 Year after level 2 OR 60 credits after level 4


KNQF LEVEL 6: National Diploma/Master Craft Person II/Professional Diploma

Purpose: The level qualifies a graduate to apply specialized knowledge in a range of contexts to undertake advanced skilled or paraprofessional work and as a pathway for further learning.

Knowledge: A graduate at this level should have specialized and integrated technical and theoretical knowledge with depth within one or more fields of work and learning.

Skills: A graduate at this level should have:

  • cognitive and communication skills to identify, analyze, synthesize and act on information from a range of sources;
  • cognitive and communication skills to transfer knowledge and skills to others and to demonstrate understanding of specialized knowledge with depth in some areas;
  • cognitive and communication skills to formulate responses to complex problems; and
  • wide-ranging specialized technical, creative or conceptual skills to express ideas and perspectives.

Competence: A graduate at this level should demonstrate the application of knowledge and skills:

  • for depth in areas of specialization, in contexts subject to change;
  • for initiative and judgment in planning, design, technical or management functions with some direction;
  • to adapt a range of fundamental principles and complex techniques to known and unknown situations; and
  • across a broad range of technical or management functions with accountability for personal outputs and personal and team outcomes within broad parameters.

Minimum Admission Requirements: KCSE C- (Minus) or KCE division II, KACE one (1) Principal or equivalent qualification or Certificate of Experiential Learning or KNQF 5

Minimum Volume of learning: The minimum volume of learning is: 2400 Hours or 240 Credits or a minimum of 2 Years after level 2 OR 120 credits after level 5


KNQF LEVEL 7: Bachelor’s Degree/Management Professional/Master Craft Person I

Purpose: The level qualifies a graduate to apply a body of knowledge in a specific context to undertake professional work and as a pathway for research and further learning.

Knowledge: A graduate at this level should have coherent and advanced knowledge of the underlying principles and concepts in one or more disciplines and knowledge of research principles and methods.

Skills: A graduate at this level should have:

  • cognitive skills to review, analyze, consolidate and synthesize knowledge to identify and provide solutions to complex problems with intellectual independence;
  • cognitive and technical skills to demonstrate a broad understanding of a body of knowledge and theoretical concepts with an advanced understanding in some areas;
  • cognitive skills to exercise critical thinking and judgment in developing new understanding;
  • technical skills to design and use research in a project; and
  • communication skills to present a clear and coherent exposition of knowledge and ideas to a variety of audiences.

Competence: A graduate at this level should demonstrate the application of knowledge and skills:

  • for initiative and judgment in professional practice and/or scholarship;
  • to adapt knowledge and skills in diverse contexts;
  • for responsibility and accountability for own learning and practice and in collaboration with others within broad parameters;
  • to plan and execute project work or a piece of research and scholarship with some independence.

Minimum Admission Requirements: KCSE C+ or equivalent or KACE (A level) two (2) principals and 1 subsidiary or equivalent in relevant subjects or CPA II/CPS II/CIPS II or equivalent for commerce and art and should have attained an aggregate of C- (minus) in KCSE or KCE division II or completion of KNQF 6.

Minimum Volume of learning: The minimum volume of learning is: 4800 Hours or 480 Credits or a minimum of 4 Years after level 2 OR 240 credits after level 6


KNQF LEVEL 8: Postgraduate Diploma/Professional Bachelors Degree/ Professional Master Craft Person

Purpose: The level qualifies a graduate to apply a body of knowledge in a range of contexts to undertake professional or highly skilled work and as a pathway for further learning.

Knowledge: A graduate at this level should have advanced knowledge within a systematic and coherent body of knowledge that may include the acquisition and application of knowledge and skills in a new or existing discipline or professional area

Skills: A graduate at this level should have — cognitive skills to review, analyze, consolidate and synthesize knowledge and identify and provide solutions to complex problems;

  • cognitive skills to think critically and to generate and evaluate complex ideas;
  • specialized technical and creative skills in a field of highly skilled or professional practice;
  • communication skills to demonstrate an understanding of theoretical concepts; and
  • communication skills to transfer complex knowledge and ideas to a variety of audiences.

Competence: A graduate at this level should demonstrate the application of knowledge and skills —

  • to make high-level, independent judgments in a range of technical or management functions in varied specialized contexts;
  • to initiate, plan, implement and evaluate broad functions within varied specialized technical or creative contexts; and
  • for responsibility and accountability for personal outputs and all aspects of the work or function of others within broad parameters

Minimum Admission Requirements: Bachelor's degree with 480 credits in the relevant subject area or equivalent prior learning experience and/or a qualification in the relevant subject area or 600 credits after KNQF level 2 

Minimum Volume of learning: The minimum volume of learning is 1200 Hours or 120 Credits or 1 Year after level 7 OR 600 credits after level 2


KNQF LEVEL 9: Master’s Degree

Purpose: The level qualifies a graduate to apply an advanced body of knowledge in a range of contexts for research and scholarship and as a pathway for further learning.

Knowledge: A graduate at this level should have:

  • a body of knowledge that includes the understanding of recent developments in a discipline or area of professional practice; and
  • knowledge of research principles and methods applicable to a field of work or learning.

Skills: A graduate at this level should have

  • cognitive skills to demonstrate mastery of theoretical knowledge and to reflect critically on theory and professional practice or scholarship;
  • cognitive, technical, and creative skills to investigate, analyze and synthesize complex information, problems, concepts and theories and to apply established theories to different bodies of knowledge or practice; cognitive, technical and creative skills to generate and evaluate complex ideas and concepts at an abstract level;
  • communication and technical research skills to justify and interpret theoretical propositions, methodologies, conclusions and professional decisions to specialist and non-specialist audiences; and technical and communication skills to design, evaluate, implement, analyze and theorize about developments that contribute to professional practice or scholarship

Competence: A graduate at this level should demonstrate the application of knowledge and skills:

  • for creativity and initiative in new situations in professional practice or for further learning;
  • for high-level personal autonomy and accountability; and
  • to plan and execute a substantial research-based project, capstone experience, or piece of scholarship.

Minimum Admission Requirements: Bachelor's degree with at least 480 credits in the qualification of KNQF level 7 in the relevant study Area.

Minimum Volume of learning: The minimum volume of learning is: 2400 Hours or 240 Credits or a minimum of 2 Years


KNQF LEVEL 10: Doctorate Degree

Purpose: The level qualifies a graduate to apply a substantial body of knowledge to research, investigate and develop new knowledge, in one or more fields of investigation, scholarship, or professional practice.

Knowledge: A graduate at this level should have:

  • A substantial body of knowledge at the frontier of a field of work or learning, including knowledge that constitutes an original contribution; and
  • Substantial knowledge of research principles and methods applicable to the field of work or learning.

Skills: A graduate at this level should have:

  • cognitive skills to demonstrate an expert understanding of theoretical knowledge and to reflect critically on that theory and practice;
  • cognitive skills and use of intellectual independence to think critically, evaluate existing knowledge and ideas, undertake systematic investigation and reflect on theory and practice to generate original knowledge;
  • expert technical and creative skills applicable to the field of work or learning;
  • the communication skills to explain and critique theoretical propositions, methodologies and conclusions;
  • the communication skills to present cogently a complex investigation of originality or original research for external examination against international standards and to communicate results to peers and the community; and
  • expert skills to design, implement, analyze, theorize and communicate research that makes a significant and original contribution to knowledge and/or professional practice.

Competence: A graduate at this level should demonstrate the application of knowledge and skills:

  • for intellectual independence;
  • for initiative and creativity in new situations or for further learning;
  • for full responsibility and accountability for personal outputs;
  • to plan and execute original research; and
  • to have an ongoing capacity to generate new knowledge, including in the context of professional practice.

Minimum Admission Requirements: KNQF Level 9 qualifications

Minimum Volume of learning: The minimum volume of learning is: 3600 Hours or 360 Credits or a minimum of 3 Years

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